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Checked and updated 13 March 2017
The short and hazardous life of sheep

Counting sheep
The cash crop
The sheep's life
Lame sheep
Foot & Mouth disease
Death by exposure
Lambing

Timing 'Spring lambs'
Castration and tail docking
Mulesing
Dipping
Shearing
Slaughter
'Organic'  


Though I've found that many people think otherwise, wool is not a cruelty free product and there is no such thing in the UK as a sizeable flock of sheep kept solely for their wool.
This page refers mainly to practices in the UK -  in other countries like Australia, there are indeed large flocks kept mainly for their soft Merino wool (but also for cash for meat and lambs). But most of the practices described here are universal, and they are likely to be even harsher in overseas farms which operate on a much larger scale and which have different animal transportation and slaughter regulations.

Generally, farmers in the UK get a poor return for wool, and there are now only two fleece scouring plants operating in the UK. The main outlets for British wool are carpets, clothing and insulation - with knitting yarn being a very minor and specialist business. So, the sheep you see in the fields and hills don't 'give' us wool, but are destined for the meat trade. Let's not forget also that 14 million sheepskins are produced annually in the UK. (BBC Farming Today 03/04/17)

There are a tiny number of tiny farms which keep sheep mainly for the wool, but looking into this I have found that their claim is merely that their special wool is 'shorn from live sheep who are free to return to the fields' - which is actually no different from the norm. Most fleeces are shorn from live sheep, whilst a lesser amount (less than 30%) is reclaimed from slaughterhouses. The main product of sheep farming is lambs for 'the table', and the only adult sheep you will see in the fields are kept for breeding.

In December 2014 Animal Aid published a report The Uncounted Dead, which exposes the cruelty and neglect whereby an estimated 43 million farm animals die of disease, neglect, fire, flood, adverse weather and traffic accidents. In the UK, farmers need only to report deaths from 'notifiable' diseases, so actual casualty figures are not known. But it is clear that many farms are overcrowded, lacking shelter, prone to flooding, poorly built and wired, and that road transport is a hazardous business.

The sheep population

Like many types of animal farming in the UK, sheep farming is essentially unsustainable - in other words, to keep it going in its present form it needs a large input of government and European subsidies (see Environment page).

"Without payments there wouldn't be many farmers who are covering the costs of production"

Sheep farmer in Mid Wales speaking in BBC Farming Today 29/09/2016)

Subsidies increased after World War II, encouraging farmers to produce more meat, and encouraging us to eat more meat. All the practices described here are subsidised by public money. And because of the subsidies,  there was an astonishing 500% increase in the number of sheep livestock in the UK during the 20th century (UK Data Archive, 2007-2008. Study Number 6363: Sustainability of Hill Farming. Retrieved October 31, 2012 – courtesy of Wikipedia).

But it was back in the 15th and 16th centuries that wool was England's gold mine. Grazing sheep became a normal part of the landscape, which continues to the present day. Until just a year or two ago, the UK had the highest sheep population in Europe.

The UK sheep population has fluctuated in recent years, with a downward trend. UK government figures show just under 33 million sheep in the uk.  Previously populations over 40 millions had been registered.

The downward trend is explained by the fact that the EU farm subsidies per head of livestock were withdrawn in 2004. They were replaced by the 'single farm payment', which relates to the acreage of the farm rather than the number of animals kept. The motive for this significant change was to lessen the devastating effects of overgrazing during the previous decades, and it has certainly had the effect of slightly diminishing the sheep population. But aside from subsidies the essential income from sheep farming is its annual cash crop.

 

Lambs are the farmers' annual cash crop.

The main income from sheep farming today (apart from subsidies - see the environment page) is the sale of the lambs. Once a sheep has reached its peak production, or in the case of lambs for the Easter lamb market, it will be slaughtered. In any one year, roughly half of the sheep and lamb population will be slaughtered and replaced. Technically, a lamb is less than one year old, though this is sometimes stretched, and the tail end of the lamb market is Christmas.... . 

“Most lambs/sheep are slaughtered at 10 weeks to 6 months, though some may be 14 months old" (stretching the definition a little).
 http://www.rspca.org.uk/allaboutanimals/farm/sheep/farming

Even producers who keep small flocks for the speciality wool market, have to breed lambs each year. I once read in a knitting magazine of a woman in the Highlands who aimed at some point in the future to be able to keep her small flock without selling lambs, but this would need to be heavily subsidised by other income. Please contact me with details if you know of such a flock and I will mention it here if the owner agrees. Keeping sheep just for wool would be virtually impossible on a commercial scale, though there may be a very few individuals who do it for a hobby and leave the sheep to live out their natural lives. In fact, since launching this site, just one person has contacted me to say he and his wife keep a small number of pet sheep and use the wool. Such wool does not make it to our local wool shops and even if we could afford to buy it there wouldn't be enough to go round.

Since writing the above, I've come across Izzy Lane, a North Yorkshire company which apparently produces cruelty-free wool for the high-end fashion market, and has recently added a small collection of knitting yarn to their catalogue   This seems to be 'the exception that proves the rule' and cruelty-free wool is light years away from being available on the high street. In any case, I would think that most vegans would not want to support any kind of commercial animal exploitation, though I salute Izzy Lane for the work that has been put into the project and for the awareness raising that they are doing.


I have also recently found out about a small enterprise started about 10 years ago by a couple in Carmarthenshire (Wales) who have about 80 sheep and 60 acres of land. They do not slaughter any sheep or lambs and they castrate most of the young rams except for some vasectomised rams used for 'teasers'. In this comparatively tiny flock, it is possible to observe natural groupings and behaviour patterns amongst the sheep. The couple do their own shearing but I don't yet know what happens to the wool. They sell organic preserves, grow some food, and have planted orchards. What a pity that for many reasons a brilliant enterprise like this is only possible in these times for a tiny minority of producers and consumers. I will put up a link to their website as soon as I learn that it's up and running.

You can also buy wool in the form of fleece from the Farm Animal Sanctuary in Worcestershire which you have to spin yourself or send for spinning, but which is certainly cruelty free and is affordable.  All this bears out the fact that 'cruelty free wool' is not readily available, at least in any shop .

"(the owner) seems remarkably sanguine about the minimal profitability of her wool products. She is clear that it would not be remotely viable if they did not breed and sell the lambs for meat. Lambs can currently reach as much as 120...." (the price of lambs fluctuates greatly at market)

Knitting magazine November 2013 (interview with smallholder producing wool for farmers markets and for sale online).

The short and hazardous life of sheep

Sheep are farmed in hills (e.g. Wales, Peak District, North Yorkshire...), in uplands, or in the lowlands (e.g. East Anglia, East Yorkshire, Devon....) and this involves different breeds of sheep, often very localised. Also in many areas sheep are bred in the hills and fattened for slaughter in more hospitable lower lying fields. Hence “sheep can be frequently transported throughout their lives and are often sold via livestock markets.” (RSPCA – see    http://www.rspca.org.uk/allaboutanimals/farm/sheep/farming)

250 sheep can legally be transported in a single lorry and as we know sheep may be transported several times during their lives. The Animal Aid Report mentioned above details a representative list of accidents over recent years, of which these are examples:
24 March 2014, 60 sheep killed when a trailer overturned on a remote road in Cumbria... 20 May 2014, 4 sheep killed when a trailer overturned in Shropshire … 11 September 2012, 43 sheep were shot or euthanised when they were found to be unfit for travel on arrival at the port of Ramsgate and another two drowned when the floor of their holding area collapsed … 9 August 2011, a goods vehicle carrying 250 sheep and 17 cows overturned in North Yorkshire where 125 sheep and 2 cows were killed … 24 August 2010, 5 cows and 150 sheep were killed when a lorry overturned on the B6372 … These are examples of accidents which reach local or national press and it can be assumed that many more accidental deaths never reach the media. Countless animals are also killed when, because of careless farmers, they stray onto roads.

We are used to seeing sheep out in the fields in all weathers and all seasons, without shelter, and we think that must be 'natural'. Well of course it's not, for all animals need somewhere to shelter in adverse conditions, whether in burrows or tree cover (how many wild animals or pets do you see standing about in the rain?) Despite excellent weather forecasting, farmed sheep are subjected to torrential rain, waterlogging, blizzards and drought, and are forced to produce lambs before the warm weather has started, which they would not do if left to their own devices.

The report also details several incidents within the past three years where large numbers of sheep have died in floods, from Dumfreas and Galloway (“dozens”) to Spurn Point in East Yorkshire (30) to Clwyd where 230 sheep perished in a flood near Wrexham.

 

Lame sheep

Sheep are adapted to dry rocky ground, and so those kept in low lying areas are likely to suffer from foot diseases. In today's large flocks, at least 10% of sheep suffer chronic lameness, parasite infestation and viral and bacterial infections of the feet. I often walk in sheep farming parts of the Peak District where a limping sheep is a common sight. Scald and footrot, both bacterial infections, are the main causes of lameness. It's the inevitable consequence of being kept in England's green and pleasant (therefore wet) land, often in fields smattered with their own excrement; such land is sometimes called 'sheep sick' ground, and it encourages disease. The average size of flocks kept in hill farming is around 600 sheep whereas upland farms and lower lying farms may have many more. Herding animals in the wild move around and are rarely subject to such diseases.

"LAMENESS remains one of the most important welfare issues affecting the sheep industry. Recent estimates suggest that over 80 per cent of flocks contain lame sheep, with a prevalence in some flocks of over 9 per cent for footrot and over 15 per cent for scald” (Journal of the British Veterinary Association In Practice, no. 26, 2004 http://inpractice.bmj.com/content/26/2/58.abstract

 

Foot and mouth disease

Another hazard for sheep is foot-and-mouth disease (which can also affect pigs and cattle). It causes fever, lameness and general weakness and is highly contagious but rarely fatal. It cannot be cured but usually runs its course within two or three weeks. However, in the UK infected animals are “culled” in order to prevent others from being infected, as this would cause economic problems for the farmers (in other words, an outbreak would cause the animals to lose body weight, i.e. meat, as well as deterring consumers who would be put off by the news stories). You may remember the 2001 outbreak when 3 million sheep were slaughtered in the UK to try to stop the disease spreading. It was presented in the media as tragedy for the sheep, but of course it was really a tragedy for the farmer. In any one year, many times this number go to slaughter in the normal course. Over 1 billion was paid to farmers in compensation.    https://www.nao.org.uk/press-releases/the-2001-outbreak-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-2/Carcass

 

Exposure

Here is another media headline, this time showing the threat of hypothermia and starvation to sheep kept outside in the UK with no shelter:

“Farm leaders are in emergency talks amid fears that thousands of sheep have perished in snow drifts.

“It comes as companies responsible for collecting fallen stock are being asked to offer bulk discounts for the disposal of dead animals.”
 (Farmers Weekly March 2013, see    http://www.fwi.co.uk/articles/26/03/2013/138342/emergency-talks-as-sheep-death-toll-climbs.htm )

And the toll of sheer neglect is huge, with cases that come to court representing only the tip of the iceberg. The example detailed in the Animal Aid Report from the countryside near where I live (South Pennines) is of a case of 50 dead sheep being found alongside live animals on a Derbyshire farm.


Other common diseases which affect sheep and lambs

Orf is a skin disease of sheep and goats and is common throughout the UK.  It is caused by a virus which normally grows only on the surface of the skin, but causes an infection when the skin is damaged. Infected lambs will not thrive, and young suckling lambs can quickly spread the disease to ewes, causing sore teats and mastitis, which can be very serious and even fatal. (see Farmers weekly online)

Johne's disease is "majorly under-diagnosed" across the UK, as has been shown by post mortem data on 'fallen' sheep. Johne’s disease was picked up 420 times during the post-mortem examination of fallen sheep in England, Wales and Scotland in 2013, 2014 and 2015, an exclusive Farmers Weekly investigation has shown. Johne's disease is chronic enteritis of the intestines of ruminants. (Farmers weekly online)

Lambs and lambing

The main feature of lambing is that it does not take place in its normal season, but at an eariler time dictated by the farmer and very much arranged round the date of Easter! This is because it is apparently traditional to eat lamb at Easter time (see below for more details). Sheep have two teats and in natural conditions they would have just one lamb. However, many years of selective breeding and intensive feeding have resulted in sheep which often produce two or even three lambs, which the farmer then tries to keep alive using various bizarre methods - usually by tricking another sheep whose own lamb has died into suckling a lamb that's not her own. When triplets are born they may be kept with others in pens with artificial teats around the sides. They would be weaned in the pens onto dried pellets, and then put out to grass to be 'finished', so they would never have known their mother. For the majority of mother sheep, who are able to raise their own lambs, there are many hazards of nursing and here I shall mention just one.
 

Mastitis

“Mastitis in ewes is a cause of significant financial loss to the industry and severely jeopodizes the welfare of affected sheep and their lambs.”
 http://www.moredun.org.uk/research/practical-animal-health-information/disease-summaries/mastitis-ewes

Mastitis is a bacterial infection of the teat canal, most often during the first few weeks of lactation, and it's very painful. Faecal infection, as with many other farm animal diseases, is usually the cause.

 

Shepherding

tail dockedIt's not surprising, given the harsh conditions in which sheep are raised, that lambing is a hazardous time for sheep and lambs. The care of the shepherd for the sheep and lambs is legendary and is still commonly cited, not least in churches ('The Lord is my  Shepherd'....) , though of course animals in more favourable conditions, born in their due season, with ample clean grazing and shelter, and without intense breeding, would not necessarily need intensive care. And the mortality statistics show that not all farmers are able to give that care. Lambs are a cash crop after all, worthy of care only as far as they promise good market value.


I am sure that all farmers if challenged with neglecting their animals would strongly deny the accusation and assure us of the devoted care they give to them. Probably most of the farmers are being truthful, though to those of us who choose not to use their products, the word “care” seems a misnomer when ultimately the worst will happen to the animals. But aside from such issues, there is always 'human nature' to contend with and wherever people are engaged in any business there are always those who are neither honest nor compassionate. Again and again undercover investigations find the most appalling abuse of farm animals and this has included both the RSPCA Freedom Foods and the Red Tractor assurance scheme (which is after all an organisation made up basically from farmers and the food industry) see for instance    http://www.hillside.org.uk/HillsideInvestigationFootage.htm.

 

Timing  

In natural conditions, lambing would take place in early summer. It's the shortness of daylight hours in midwinter that triggers oestrus, so that after a five month pregnancy the lambs will be born at a reasonably mild  time of year. However, lambing on farms takes place as soon as the farmer judges that he can 'get away with it' – in other words, when he thinks that early births in February and March will not cause lambing deaths to outweigh profitability. When the cold and lametime is judged to be right, the farmer will either organise artificial insemination, or he may let rams into the flock.

Breeding livestock is big business in the UK and some of the world's leading genetics companies are based here.

On a typical farm ewes are rounded up in October and given a better diet prior to 'flushing' by the ram (or 'tup' as farmers and locals call the rams). Lambing will then take place in early Spring, sometimes even whilst snow is on the ground.  The BBC Radio 4 Farming Today programme interviewed a farmer on his sheep farm in Cumbria on 8 September 2015, because he was, on that date, 'Tupping'. Lambs will then be born around the end of January 2016, a full three months earlier than if left to nature. What the BBC programme did not mention was that Easter would be very early in 2016 (27 March) and that was the reason behind the tupping being even earlier than usual. The lambs who survive will be exactly timed for 'spring lamb' on Easter Sunday.

The photo shows a common scene in the Derbyshire Peak District - an open field on a cold stormy day in early spring. The nursing sheep is lame.

Castration and tail docking

In the photo above, tail docking is also illustrated. The mature sheep you see in the fields are either females or castrated males. In most herds they will all have had their potentially long tails removed by 'docking' during the first weeks of life.  Sometimes you can see the remains of lambs' body parts in the fields.  However lambs who are destined for slaughter before reaching sexual maturity are not usually castrated. The castrated adult males are often used to trigger oestrus prior to putting the tups in with the female sheep.  

Elastration is the most common method of castration and tail docking in the UK. Tail dockingFor castration, a thick rubber ring is placed around the neck of the scrotum and this causes it to wither within four to six weeks.   The procedure is usually done in the first week of life. Scottish Government recommendations state:

“Account should be taken not only of the pain and distress caused by castration but also the stress imposed by gathering and handling and the potential risk of infection. For very young lambs gathered in large groups there is real risk of mismothering which may lead ultimately to starvation and death.”
 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/06/18114052/6

'Mismothering' is the distress of tail docking and castration, both carried out at the same time, which may prevent the lambs from suckling - life threatening in the early days.

These are recommendations only and the law itself merely states that it is illegal to castrate a lamb over the age of three months without anaesthetic.

Tail docking is routinely done to lambs, also with a rubber ring, and is carried out in order to reduce the build-up of faeces around the anus, which would encourage flystrike, a serious parasitic disease.

A  report by the former Farm Animal Welfare Council in 2008 found that “in the absence of effective pain relief, lambs experience considerable pain in the period following application of the ring.” They also found that the ring causes considerable pain and distress to the lamb for up to a month after the initial procedure.
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121007104210/http://www.fawc.org.uk/pdf/report-080630.pdf

(The independent Farm Animal Welfare Council has since been replaced by the government's Farm Animal Welfare Committee)

Flystrike
 
Despite these measures, flystrike still affects many flocks in the UK. It's a very serious parasitic disease, with the blowfly larvae (maggots) infesting the anal area and eating the tissue. 

It seems that 2005 was a particularly bad year: 

Blowfly strike is a major welfare concern and an important cause of ill thrift and death in affected animals. Last year, the first cases were reported throughout the UK at the beginning of May, and the incidence remained high during the summer. Problems were compounded by wet weather, which made chemical preventive management difficult.”
 Farmers Weekly 20 June 2005 11.2

Mulesing

This is not carried out in the UK but in Australia where Merino sheep are extensively farmed. Flystrike is a particular hazard for Merino sheep because they have been bred to have many folds of flesh to produce their very wooly fleeces. Mulesing is the practice of actually removing skin from the area around the anus, usually without pain relief or antiseptics, in order to lessen the risk of flystrike. Mulesing is actually a surgical procedure though it is carried out by unqualified hands. The sheep is tied down on its back whilst flesh is carved out from its backside with clippers or large scissors. No anaesthetic is used and the bleeding wound is left open. 

Animal rights groups, noteably PETA, have campaigned against mulesing, achieving a ban on Merino wool by, for instance, John Lewis in 2009 and New Look in 2012. New Zealand has adopted a voluntary (therefore ineffective) ban on mulesing but Australia seems to have reneged on a promise to outlaw it. Thousands of tonnes of wool are imported into the UK from Australia and it is still the main source of Merino wool sold in the UK.

 

Dipping

Sheep dipping to reduce mite infestation of the skin was compulsory until 1989, since when infestations of sheep scab have been rampant in the UK. Sheep scab (a mite infestation of the skin) causes great distress to the animal and can be fatal. Both the disease and the prophylaxis are severe.

The Sheep Dip Sufferers Support Group says that more than 20,000 farmers suffered ill health and neurological diseases due to organophosphates when dipping was compulsory, with a number committing suicide.

To combat sheep scab, regulations say that sheep must be immersed for one whole minute in the toxic mix, with their heads dunked twice during that period.  The dip is highly toxic to plants and animals so there are problems both with the disposing of the liquids and with contamination of the land and waterways from the sheep themselves after dipping.
 National Animal Disease Information Service http://www.nadis.org.uk/bulletins/control-of-sheep-scab.aspx

See the Environment page for more on sheep dip.

 

ShearingShearing

The story goes that the women who first made those beautiful Shetland shawls (so fine they could be drawn through a wedding ring!) used to pull the wool from the sheep, and in this way produce an extremely fine yarn. That would be before Shetland wool went global - these days there's not much time for pulling wool. Selective breeding has produced sheep with fleeces which cannot be shed naturally over the summer months, and this leaves them at risk of heat exhaustion. Conversely, in our increasingly extreme and unpredictable weather, the sheep are also at risk from cold weather after shearing. Shearing typically takes place once a year, at the beginning of the summer when the sheep have just been through the stresses of pregnancy and lactation. There is no doubt that rough handling is necessary. We can only imagine the feelings of the sheep, who evolved to suppress signs of pain or fear so as not to attract predators. This we interpret as indifference or compliance. Unbelievably, there are people who want sheep shearing to become an Olympic sport.

Bear in mind that most wool used in knitting yarn in thre UK is not from UK sheep. Most of it is from countries which farm sheep on an industrial scale - please watch this short video if you have any doubts about the shearing process:
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/11/sheep-cruelty-video-sparks-rspca-investigation


SInce writing the above, I've come across Easy Care Sheep http://www.easycaresheep.com/. "Easy Care is a revolutionary breed of sheep which requires minimal shepherding and veterinary care, sheds its wool in the summer, does not need shearing and yet offers excellent meat yields and lambing ratios. The breed is now well established in Britain and abroad and is proving extremely popular and successful with breeders in today's farming environment".
That certainly shows the farmers' priorities. According to a farmer featured on Radio 4 Farming Today, there are now around half a million of these sheep in the UK. This farmer was very clear that, though the UK wool market seems to be on the up, British wool will never be able to compete with the superior wool that comes from merino sheep in other countries. 

Slaughter

Sheep have a life span similar to that of dogs and can live up to 17 years, but farmed sheep are usually slaughtered when they have reached their peak market value, which means before they reach six years old. The majority of sheep slaughtered each year are lambs (under one year old) and the majority of those will go to the Halal market.

Animals must by law be stunned before slaughter in the UK except those under religious slaughter. Those killed by religious slaughter may often be killed in the same slaughterhouses but without the initial stunning.    http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/may/05/vet-condemns-slaughter-farm-animals.

During 2014, the charity Animal Aid carried out undercover filming in 10 slaughterhouses and in 9 out of the 10 they filmed criminal welfare breeches. Only the last filming in December hit the mainstream media in January 2015, and perhaps only then, regretably, because it produces halal meat. You may not want to click on the link below because it shows horrific and sadistic cruelty which potentially could occur in any slaughterhouse.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/03/halal-slaughterhouse-staff-investigated-alleged-animal-cruelty-bowood-lamb-yorkshire

In UK slaughterhouses, where 'humane slaughter' is practiced, sheep have to wait immobilised in a queue where they can hear and smell what is ahead. Then they enter the stunning pen, where electric prongs are applied on either side of their head, and a current passed through the brain, rendering the animal temporarily unconscious if all goes 'well'.  They then have their throats cut and are immediately hoisted up and suspended by a back leg to be passed along the overhead line where bleeding to death will take place during the next few minutes (again, if all goes 'well'). The process of hoisting the animal before death is the same for cattle and is a legal requirement in the UK and most western countries because of the need to avoid cross contamination from blood.

Time and time again, undercover investigations show how the process can go horribly wrong, given that it is carried out away from public view and mostly away from official scrutiny. Sometimes the smaller slaughterhouses are the worst, as with this investigation by the Hillside Animal Sanctuary, published in a mainstream newspaper in February 2015:

http://www.hillside.org.uk/slaughterhouseinvestigation2015.htm

Animal rights organisations have been campaigning for years to make CCTV cameras compulsory in UK slaughterhouses.  The campaign has been strenuously fought and fought against - which in itself speaks volumes of the industry. Only in 2015 are there now glimmerings of possible future success - which, when it happens, will be notified here!

Live export of sheep and cattle is still going on the the UK (2016) and of course when the animals reach their destination, they will be in a country which does not have the 'humane' procedures of the UK.

Organic wool

In addition to buying local produce when possible, many people search out organic products, including wool. In the UK, only produce certified by the Soil Association can be called 'organic'. The Soil Association is proud of its animal welfare standards:

The Soil Association promises that in organic farming there is

Lots of outdoor space and fresh air
Encouragement of normal animal behaviour
Minimised stress in transport and slaughter

The first two criteria here are not different from non-organic sheep farms, and as for the third, organic and non-organic go to the same slaughterhouses. So from the sheep's point of view there's not much difference between organic and non-organic farms.

People who have studied sheep closely know that they are very intelligent and individualistic animals, more so than dogs sometimes – not to mention that they are also able to suffer fear and pain, like all other mammals. It's just that we humans can't usually read their signals.   

Sheep, like many other animals, evolved to hide signs of pain and distress so as not to attract predators – how tragic that this now seems to work to their disadvantage.

 
 
Sheep in lorry

On the Environment page is a 16th century lament for the displacement of traditional mixed farming by sheep farming.  Here is an extract from a poem from mid 20th century Wales:

The Welsh Hill Country

    Too far for you to see
    The fluke and foot-rot and the fat maggot
    Gnawing the skin from the small bones,
    The sheep are grazing at Bwlch-y-Fedwen,
    Arranged romantically in the usual manner
    On a bleak background of bald stone.
    Too far for you to see ...........

R.S Thomas, 1913-2000
Welsh poet and Anglican parish priest.


 
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